Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three. Thoughts on Translation. A. K. Ramanujan. How many Ramayanas? Three hundred? Three thousand?. When I studied history as an undergraduate in Delhi University in the mids, A.K. Ramanujan’s essay, “Three Hundred Ramayanas”. The scholarly essay by A. K. Ramanujan. “Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation.’ appeared in The.

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Obviously, those who speak in the name of upholding Indian read Hindu culture lack the legacy of that which they are claiming to uphold—respect for diversity, dialogue and interpretation. Finally, the crucial point rananujan Ramanujan makes is with regard to translation of texts: About Mainstream Archives on It contains false stories quoted under one pretext or oral and other sic without any authenticity.

Ramanujan’s Three Hundred Ramayanas: Transmission, Interpretation And Dialogue In Indian Traditions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The second major point that Ramanujan makes is, given the diversity and spread of the tradition, to privilege one as the original Ur text and see others as variations does not factor in the ways in which ideas and traditions are disseminated and take root in different language cultures. Besides, why would they attend to ramanuuan views of one expert and ignore three others?

The history department teachers, of course, refused to comply. In the second tradition, in addition to countering, the narrative seeks to provide some alternate views as well. ramayqnas

The count of Ramayanas in the title of the essay is based on a work of Camille Bulcke [1] and it has been pointed out that it is an underestimate of the actual count. Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jain Texts, pp. Views Read Edit View history. Nor can the vice-chancellor be trying to turn the clock back to his time in college when the essay was blissfully unwritten: D scholar at my Centre, teaching in a DU college, remarked that it was so delightful to have a paper that actually allowed you to look at culture beyond the confines of the mainstream with its emphasis on normative lenses.

Ramanujan, far from being malicious about the texts he discusses, obviously loves them.


The following sources provide more information on the arguments against the inclusion of the essay in the curriculum:. Five Examples and Three Thoughts Three of the members were of the opinion that the ramanjan was germane to the course and that there was nothing wrong with it.

Ramanujan, while referring to the diversity and apparently contradictory element of unity in the Indian traditions, refers to an Irish joke about whether to 300 trousers as singular or plural: Gunabhadra borrows this motif in the 9th century CE, and the girl child is placed in a casket and buried in Mithila by Marica, the demon that could change his form at will. An attempt is made to create differences in communities.

There are two distinct traditions within the Jaina Ramakathas, and although Ramanujan does not directly refer to this himself, I extend his assertion that there is no one text that can be upheld for even the counter narrative. We can rule out one possibility: One of Ramanujan’s main observations in the essay is that there is no such original Ramayana and that Valmiki’s Ramayana telling is only one among many Ramayana tellings. The essay was a required reading on Delhi University’s syllabus for history undergraduates from onward.

The issue ended up in the Supreme Court which wanted the opinion of an academic expert committee. Inpolitical activists of the Hindu Right vandalised the History Department in protest against this essay. Modi renames Ross, Havelock ramayanaw Neil islands in the Andamans. The controversy engendered by the celebrated scholar A.

Three hundred Ramayanas – Delhi University and the purging of Ramanujan

His language is neither abusive nor libellous. This happened during the tenure of the previous vice-chancellor, but no holder of this office could possibly wish to further the work of thugs who seek to violently limit the intellectual freedom of a university. Winter is a state of mind in Calcutta Opinion.

I have only looked at the course outline just now, which has six themes relating to diverse topics such as material cultures, classical Sanskrit, folk and popular literary traditions and on icons and artisans, a course eminently teachable and reflexive.

Thus, the Tamil Kamban in the 12th century CE weaves in the tapestry of bhakti, unquestioning devotion that ties the bhakta, even a fallen one at that, to the god in keeping with the Tamil alvar traditions of venerating Rama as the saviour of all and as the embodiment of grace. Concerned citizens statement condemning the attack on classical musical expression in south India Acts of Intimidation: In case anyone has missed the point, the essay in question is not a pamphlet written by a provocateur: It contains abusive and libelous language used for Divine Hindu deities.


By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The South-East Asian versions of the Ramayana appear to bring more nuanced readings of all the primary protagonists.

The bhakti ideology has been seen as a reaction to brahmanical orthodoxy, but as many have pointed out, at the moment of the institutionalisation of the bhakti tradition, the dissenting element became the orthodoxy. But this end brings home to Hanuman, the ever faithful bhakta of Rama, that there is no one Rama, there are many Ramas, and no single Ramayana but many Ramayanas.

He does not distort, by scholarly consensus, the texts that he translates and the charge that in writing this essay he is trying to create communal differences is, in fact, the only part of this story that is truly libellous.

Then, ramanujna they so choose, they become teachers themselves and pass that knowledge on to others. Archives on The story of Mandodari begetting Sita is present even earlier in Jaina mythology.

The essay is a marvellous account of the hundreds of ways in which the Ramayana has been told, complete with examples of this narrative diversity. Especially when doing so would suggest, whether the academic council intended this or not, that the university had caved in to violent intimidation. That it is a matter of concern that popular beliefs and prevailing traditions of Hindu Culture are projected in distorted manner. However, Ramanujan considers only five tellings of Ramayana, namely, the tellings by ValmikiKambanthe Jain telling, the Thai Ramakien and the South Indian folk tellings.