The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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The single event that made the most profound effect on Central and Southern Africa in the nineteenth century?

As a result of many wars between indigenous people there was Chaos. Zwangendaba of the Jele or Gumbi clan son of Nonyanda ka Sguda Jele according to the information given by the original Gumbi clan of Kwazulu Natal and not kaHlatshwayo as stated by other researchers [ citation needed ]a commander of the Ndwandwe army, fled north with Soshangane after his defeat in With the study guides and notes written by fellow students, you are guaranteed to be properly prepared for your exams.

They oppressed the Tsonga people living there, some of whom fled over the Lebombo Mountains into the Northern Transvaal. Soshanganeone of Zwide’s generals, fled to Mozambique with the remainder of the Ndwandwe.

Request a new password via email. They settled in the area now known as Matabelelandin present-day southern Zimbabwe. Cobbing’s hypothesis remains controversial and the discussion about it was called the “Cobbing Controversy”. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

New methods and weapons of fighting were introduced which increased insecurity i. So as one group is conquered, they also move to other areas to conquer weaker states and this cycle of conquering weaker states helped spread the Mfecane from Southern Africa to Central and Eastern Africa.


This was the genesis of the Great Trek which also had a very big impact on the people of Southern Africa but not on the scale of the Mfecane. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Zwide defeated the Mthethwa and executed Chief Dingiswayo.

This page was last edited on 16 Novemberat Reconstructive Debates in Southern African History. It was characterized by severe punishments that caused untold bloodshed and fortune of the Zulu people and other parts of central and EastAfrical begun from the northern Zululand and then to rest of the Bantu area in South Africa. Retrieved 12 September With the fall of Dingiswayo, Shaka emerged from the ashes of the small Zulu chiefdom to build it into a larger political kingdom.

What had caused the Mfecane?

Mfecane led to the evolution of strong centralized governments I. Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. Rise of strong personalities who mobilized comrnunities and becameimportant figures in history of cast and central Africa i. A combination of local factors–population growth, the depletion of natural resources, and devastating drought and famine–led to revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and social structure of Bantu-speaking communities in southern Africa in the first half of the nineteenth century.

The rise of Shaka who was a great Ngoni and Sotho leader, he believed in the expansion of the Zulu kingdom. Demographic changes occurred mfecan peaceful areas became density populated while unsafe areas became depopulated. The impact of the Chinese engagement in southern Africa with a coun Upload your own papers!

South Africa – Background to the Mfecane

It will first discuss why the Mfecane is seen as single event, then move on to discuss its causes and effects and later conclude on the question based on the findings of the research.

Populations had increased greatly in Zululand following the Portuguese introduction of maize in from the Americas in the mfecanw 17th century, reaching the inland around The causes of mfecane were not very clear; however the proposed causes for its occurrence included.


This caused resentment mfecxne has continued in modern Zimbabwe. Internet URLs are the best.

Defeats in several clashes convinced Mzilikazi to move north towards Swaziland. South African History Online. Your fellow students know exactly where the pitfalls lie and what the key elements will be to your success in that module. For instance the Ndwandwe and Ngwane lived close to each other in the Pongola Valley and as their populations grew there was an increase in demand for cultivable lands.

The Mfecane and Its Effects

The existence of strong communities along side weak ones. The regimental system which involved recruiting young men for war and equipping them to teeth. Some critics assert that revisionist theories such as Cobbing’s placed too much weight on environmental factors and ignored the key roles played by dynamic human agents such as the Zulu king Shaka. The Causses of Africa and its Effects on the Continent.

Upload Papers, win an iPhone X. Rise and growth of defensive states, they were multi-ethnic statesthey were multi-ethnic built to defend themselves against the Ngoni imperialismthey included Nyamwenzi empire of Miramb,Nyunguamawe,Urambo,Ukimba,in central Tanganyika and kolclo state in central Africa.

With their assistance, you can become well prepared and can avoid having to retake exams. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you cauzes any clarifications are needed.