Results with 14 undergraduate Ss are almost identical to those of Bransford and Franks: Ss frequently reported recognizing new sentences derived from the. Citation, Bransford, J.D. and Franks, J.J., The Abstraction of Linguistic Ideas. Cognitive Psychology 2, (). (pdf). Summary of Experiment. Replicated J. D. Bransford and J. J. Franks’s (see record ) 2nd experiment in as great a detail as the description of the original procedure would .

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The psychological reality of phrase-structure rules. The implicit memory test was NOT affected by the type qnd question which was paired with the word. This is a little bizarre that a consciously chosen encoding strategy can affect the unconscious process of Implicit memory tests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,5, Results indicate that during an acquisition phase of the experiments, Ss spontaneously integrate the information expressed by a number of non-consecutively experienced but semantically related sentences into wholistic, semantic ideas, where these ideas encompass more information than any acquisition sentence bransfotd.

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Thus, Ss are most confident of “recognizing” sentences expressing all the semantic relations characteristic of a complete idea, in spite of the fact that such sentences expressed more information than was communicated by any single sentence on the acquisition list.

They constructed a clever experiment fransk showed how we link together related ideas into an integrated whole. Alphabetical List Categorical List. Alphabetical List Categorical List Memory: Now after they read the words and answer the questions, btansford subjects are randomly split into two groups. The higher the propositional complexity, the more confident the subjects were that they had heard the sentence in List 1.


Some effects of grammatical transformations on the recall of English sentences. Found evidence for depth of processing effects with Implicit memory tests. Ss’ subsequent attempts to recognize those exact sentences heard during acquisition are shown to be a function of the complete ideas acquired.

What was your average CR confidence rating given to these items? Second, PET scan barnsford show different patterns of activation dependent upon whether subject is accessing a semantic or an episodic memory.

After they heard and answered 24 sentences, there was a five minute delay, and subjects were then presented with a second list of sentences. A btansford piece of evidence for semantic integration is that subjects were very good at responding “NEW” to sentences which combined ideas across groupings from the first list.

Propositional complexity in the first list varied from 1 to 3. This suggests that participants automatically integrate concepts they see into schemas that integrate the concepts. Semantic Memory seems to be unaffected, while episodic memory is considerably disrupted, or not available for access.

Even though there is considerable evidence that semantic and episodic memories become combined during normal comprehension, there is also evidence supporting the idea that these are separate memory systems.

These our Fganks proposition statements.

STEP: Scripts: Memory: Bransford and Franks

Shows evidence that learning takes place when the subject is not aware their memory is going to be tested. Again, this is on more instance where we see “memory for meaning”, rather than verbatim recall of what was previously presented. Look Specifically at items 1,4,6,12, What was your average CR given for these items?


Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,4, Ss become less confident of having heard particular sentences as a function of the degree to which a sentence fails to exhaust all the semantic relations characteristic of a complete idea.

The Integrative Memory Tendency: Perception and Psychophysics,2, Grammatical structure and the immediate recall of English sentences. Recognition memory for syntactic and semantic aspects of connected discourse. Then they were asked to identify which of the sentences they had seen before.

Cognitive Psychology Class Notes: Schemas

Subjects are asked to identify the briefly presented word. The participants were given a set of short sentences that expressed simple concepts. In addition to rating the sentence as new or old, they also assigned confidence values which stated how sure the subject was of their response. Neurological Evidence supporting multiple long term memory systems.

Each word is flashed on computer screen for 35 ms. Subjects were much more likely to “false alarm” or false positive to 3 and 4 propositional sentences. Cognitive Psychology 2 Dissertation, Brabsford of Minnesota,