Wikipedia. Instance of, disease, Designated intractable/rare diseases. Subclass of, hair disease, metal metabolism disorder. Menkes disease (MNK), also known as Menkes syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in genes coding for the copper-transport . A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Menkes disease is caused by mutation in the gene encoding Cu(2+)-transporting ATPase .

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Menkes syndrome in a girl with X-autosome translocation. Bray observed 2 brothers who died as infants with spastic dementia, seizures, and defective hair. The protein is normally found in the Golgi apparatus, which is important for modifying proteins, including enzymes.

Annu Rev Nutr ; One of the patients developed orthostatic hypotension such that he preferred to crouch rather than stand. X-rays can be helpful in disclosing epiphysary hairlines in the extremities of long bones, whereas bone densitometry can show mild to severe osteoporosis wnfermedad the majority of patients 5. Bladder diverticula and Menkes’ syndrome.

Menkes disease

X-linked inheritance was suggested. Bilateral inguinal hernias in MD had previously been described in mild forms of the disease, like the occipital horn syndrome mild meknes form of DMalthough they can also be found in the classical presentation; they are probably due to structural abnormalities of connective tissue 5, All had cerebrovascular tortuosity and brain or cerebellar atrophy.


Dev Med Child Neurol ; Copper accumulates in some tissues, such as the small intestine and kidneyswhile the brain and other tissues have unusually low levels. Menkes disease in affected females: High 64 Cu uptake and retention values in two clinically atypical Menkes patients.

Menkes disease – Wikipedia

How to cite this article. Rather extensive biochemical investigations showed elevated plasma glutamic acid as the only consistent abnormality. French and Sherard presented evidence that they interpreted as indicating that this disorder may represent an abnormality of lipid metabolism.

The authors explained the lethality in females by preferential inactivation of the paternal X chromosome in extra embryonic tissues and resultant copper toxicity in the absence of MT.


Screening unrelated patients affected with Menkes syndrome, Tumer et al. The genetic mutation responsible for the disease was first identified inleading to a defect in the production of an intracellular protein involved in copper transport 7,8.

Those evolve over time and are associated with a poor prognosis 15, Patchy abnormality of systemic arteries with stenosis or obliteration was observed by Danks et al.

Pili torti as marker for carriers of Menkes disease.

Category:Menkes disease

enferrmedad In support of this hypothesis, Kelly and Palmiter found that cell lines derived from metallothionein deficient, Mottled embryos were very sensitive to copper toxicity.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Menkes disease. Multipoint linkage analysis in Menkes disease. Horn reported that the mutation in ATP7A was arg to ter While the OMIM database is open to the public, users seeking information about a personal medical or envermedad condition are urged to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to personal questions.


The neurologic disorder was static and characterized by hypotonia and choreoathetosis. They pointed out that the hair may not be abnormal, that serum copper determination is a simple and enfegmedad diagnostic test, and that ‘congenital hypocupraemia’ may be a preferred designation.

At the time of the Tumer et al.

Clinical manifestations and treatment of Menkes disease and its variants. No pili torti were found in one case and very few 2 in 1, in a second. Copper deficiency in animals leads to connective tissue changes because formation of lysine-derived cross-links in elastin and collagen is interfered with, the amine oxidase responsible for the msnkes modification of lysine being copper-dependent.

However, 64 Cu uptake and retention was significantly increased in the range seen for classic Menkes patients, and copper uptake in female relatives gave the same uptake pattern as in heterozygotes in other families with the classic disorder. Muscle strength was slightly diminished, deep tendon reflexes were increased with extension plantar reflex response.